明星资讯腾讯娱乐2018年02月20日 07:57:21
The DASH diet focused on fruits and vegetables,DASH饮食主要包括水果和蔬菜low fat dairy food, whole grains and lean meats低脂奶制品以及谷物和瘦肉and the control diet was that of控制饮食组的饮食则是a typical American diet.典型的美国式饮食The results of the study were that the subjects试验结果表明who consumed the DASH diet showed相比于控制饮食组a reduction in blood pressure compared to thoseDASH组的血压on the control diet.出现了下降The researchers who conducted the study进行这项试验的研究人员指出noted that while the results were promising虽然实验结果the study time was short and让人印象深刻long term health benefits will depend on但是试验研究时间很短the ability of people to make long lasting长期的健康与人们dietary changes and the increased availability坚持长期进行膳食调节of lower sodium foods.以及低钠食品的普及率相关Heart disease continues to be a major cause在世界范围内,心脏病仍然是of death and disability world wide.造成死亡和残疾的最主要原因It is often caused by a build up of fatty plaques心脏病的起因多数是由动脉血管内壁的in arteries.脂肪堆积Risk factors include age, gender,风险因素包括年龄,性别family history, tobacco use, high blood pressure家族病史,烟草,高血压and high cholesterol levels and高胆固醇prevalence of diabetes and obesity.以及糖尿病和肥胖症的多发To investigate the role of reducing dietary为了研究调查在心脏病患病风险中sodium intake on heart disease risk降低膳食钠的摄入会有什么作用a group of patients who had been diagnosed研究人员对一组被诊断为前期高血压的患者with pre-hypertension were followed over several years.进行了多年的跟踪研究Previously the patients were given individual在此之前,这些患者接受了个人和群组的and group counseling sessions focusing specifically咨询谈话on sodium reduction to help them understand谈话内容主要是让患者了解the sources of sodium in the diet.饮食中钠的来源到底是什么10 years later the investigators sent questionnaires十年后,研究人员给这些患者发送了调查问卷to these patients to determine changes in their health.用以了解他们的健康变化情况The questions focused on cardiovascular disease调查问卷的内容包括心脑血管疾病方面and self reported sodium intake.以及要求报告钠的摄入量The results of the study were that those patients试验结果表明who had received the sodium reduction education接受了有关低钠饮食咨询谈话的患者had a lowered cardiovascular disease risk比没有接受咨询谈话的患者of 25 to 30% after 10 to 15 years compared to those的心脑血管疾病患病风险who had not received the education.低25%到30%This suggests that providing consumers这也意味着,对有前期高血压患病风险who may be at risk of hypertension with education的人群进行及早的有关低钠饮食about sodium reduction early in their life方面的教育也许有助于may help prevent heart disease later.降低其今后患心脏病的风险Stroke occurs when blood supply to the brain中风发作的原因是大脑的供血is interrupted or reduced.阻断或减少This can cause paralysis or even death.这回引起瘫痪甚至是死亡Strokes are caused by a blockage in an artery血管堵塞或者血管爆裂or blood vessel leak or burst.也会引发中风Risk factors include family history, age,风险因素包括家族病史,年龄high blood pressure, high cholesterol,高血压,高胆固醇diabetes and obesity, and tobacco and alcohol use.糖尿病,肥胖症,吸烟和饮酒Although sodium is not specifically linked to虽然钠与中风和心脏病stroke and heart disease,并没有直接的联系high blood pressure is.但是高血压却和着二者密切相关Therefore sodium is linked to因此,钠与高血压数值的变化high blood pressure values.相关There are certain populations有一些特定人群that are considered at risk.会被认为是患病风险较大201505/375438

The organic food industry is a multi-billion dollar有机食物产业是一个巨大的产业business. Some producers will use labeling and一些生产商会利用标签和buzzwords to entice consumers to buy their products.广告来吸引消费者购买自己的产品Words such as ;all natural;, ;free range;,像;纯天然; ;自由放牧区;;sustainably harvested;, or ;no drugs or;可持续收割;或者;不含药物和growth hormones used; may be truthful statements,生长激素;等词或许是真的but should not be confused with organic products.但并不应同有机产品等同起来According to the 2005 Whole Foods根据2005年天然食品商Marketer Organic Foods Trend Tracker,和有机食品调查显示Americans are buying organic foods and beverages美国人购买有机食品和饮品的原因for a variety of reasons. As part of this study,多种多样,作为这项研究的一部分participants were allowed to choose one or more参与者要选择一个或者多个reasons that figured into their decision to自己购买有机食品的原因buy organic. The top three reasons were avoidance其中 70.3%的选择了没有杀虫剂of pesticides at 70.3%, freshness 68.3%, and health68.3%的人选择了新鲜度高and nutrition at 67.1%. More than half, or 55%,67.1%的人选择了健康营养,而55%buy organic to avoid genetically modified foods.的人则是因为为了避免买到转基因食品Also, more than half of all respondents agree that除此之外,一半以上的受访者表示organic food and beverages are better for my health有机食物对身体有益,同时也and better for the environment. The survey clearly更加环保,这项调查清楚表明indicated that the majority of people thought buying大多数人认为organic was safer and healthier选择有机食物than buying conventional foods.比选择一般食物更加健康Do you buy organic foods? Take a few minutes to你是否会买有机食物?请花几分钟想想identify your own reasons why you do你为什么会买有机食物or do not purchase organic foods.你为什么会买?为什么不会买?There are a lot of issues in the media that stress媒体中有很多信息都在强调the benefit of organic foods over conventional foods.与常规食物相比,有机食物的好处A recently featured show on CBS featured近日,在哥伦比亚广播公司的一档节目Katie Couric investigating the use of antibiotics凯蒂,库里克调查了在围栏肥育工程中in feedlot operations. Oprah Winfrey has featured运用抗生素的问题,欧普拉脱口秀several shows on nutrition in which Doctor Oz has也有几期节目关注了营养问题,奥茨医生touted organics for lower levels of pesticides and认为,有机食品中的杀虫剂和硝酸盐类化肥nitrate contamination. In this segment, well的含量,在这节中,我们来关注take a look at some key issues and see what一些重要的概念,然后来观察the scientific evidence really provides.这些科学据表明了什么Pesticides are essential for crop yields and杀虫剂对农作物的生长成熟是必须的production. Without pesticides, food availability没有杀虫剂,全球的粮食产量将会锐减and price would suffer on a global scale. Yet,粮价将会迅速提高consumer fears on pesticide residues play a big part但是,消费者对杀虫剂残留的恐惧in the decision on whether or not to purchase organic是促使其购买有机产品的一个重要原因produce. Since the USDA regulates the organic美国农业部监管有机食物项目food program, it provides guidance on what type of它会就可以运用何种杀虫剂pesticides can be used. Organic farmers may still use进行规定,有机产品生产者依旧可以利用pesticides that are considered natural. These include天然杀虫剂,它们包括以肥皂为原料的soap based herbicides, water disinfectants containing灭草剂,含有次氯酸钙,次氯酸钠calcium hypochlorite, sodium hypochlorite, and copper和硫酸铜的杀菌剂,以及sulfate and insecticides of boric acid, lime sulfur,含有硼酸,石硫合剂,硫酸铜和copper sulfate and certain oils. All pesticides,某些油类的杀虫剂,所有的杀虫剂synthetic or natural, have certain health risks.不管是自然的还是合成的,都有健康风险When pesticides are used in conventional farming,在传统农业中,杀虫剂的运用there use is also strictly controlled to ensure同样受到严格的控制,以保大众的健康public safety. The EPA works to regulate health risks美国环境保护局通过制定最农药and pesticide exposures through the最高残留量(MRL)来降低人体健康风险Maximum Residue Limits or MRLs. The MRLs以及杀虫剂的外泄are evaluated based on the EPA policy of reasonableMRL是根据环境保护局的政策制定的certainty of no harm and the enforcement and这项政策的实行和推广十分广泛monitoring of these programs is extensive.实施过程中的监督也是十分重要201511/409361



  Air pollution blankets China capital region北京地区空气出现大规模污染Heavy smog is blanketing the Chinese capital Beijing and neighboring regions.中国首都北京及其周边地区出现严重雾霾天气。The countrys weather observatory issued a yellow alert on Friday in Beijing, Tianjin, and parts of the provinces of Hebei, Shandong and Anhui.国家气象台于本周五在北京、天津以及河北、山东和安徽部分地区发布黄色警报。Children, the elderly and people with respiratory problems are advised to stay indoors.儿童、老年人及患有呼吸道疾病病人需要呆在室内。The National Meteorological Center forecast the smog will clear on Sunday.国家气象中心表示雾霾将于周日退去。China has a four-tier color-coded weather warning system, with red representing the most severe weather, followed by orange, yellow and blue.我国的天气预警系统依据颜色可分为四级,代表污染最严重的红色,之后依照污染程度分为橙色、黄色及蓝色。The government has promised to cut the density of inhalable particulate matters by at least 10 percent in major cities by 2017.中国政府已经做出承诺截至2017年将主要城市可吸入颗粒的密度降低10%。 译文属201510/404245。



  You may not recognize it, but this is our planet.你也许不认识 但那确实就是我们的地球Little more than a few pieces of rock,colliding as they circle around the Sun.当体积差不多大的巨石在围绕太阳转动时发生碰撞But these impacts produced immense amounts of heat,这种冲击力量是如此猛烈 从而产生了巨大的热量as did underground radioactive decay.这些岩石也给地球带来了大量的放射性元素Eventually, when the outer layers of the planet cooled最终,当地球外层冷却时these two powerful sources of heat were trapped in a huge hot core.这两种巨大的能量源被捕获在炽热的地核里The center of our planet is around as hot as the surface of the Sun.地球的中心和太阳的表面一样热This is the source of Earths vast heat energy.捕获在地球内部的And it was what fueled volcano to this day.巨大的热量源至今仍然使火山不断喷发Earths hot core has been continuously releasing unimaginable amounts of heat.仍然不断地释放着令人无法想象的巨大热量Even after four and a half billion years,there are still plenty left.在经历过45亿年后这种热量还大量存在Volcanoes are the most obvious examples of the Earths inner heat in action.火山是地球内热活动的最明显的例子201508/391404Try tofu, nuts, seeds, lentils, beans, red meat,尝试吃些豆腐,坚果,扁豆,黄豆,红肉chicken, turkey, fish, and pork,鸡肉,火鸡,鱼肉,猪肉low-fat dairy products低脂奶制品such as milk, cheese, and yogurt.如牛奶,奶酪和酸奶Try to stick to low-fat or fat-free dairy sources.坚持食用低脂或无脂肪的奶制品Healthful fats such as canola oil,健康的脂肪有菜籽油walnuts, almonds and avocados.核桃,杏仁和牛油果等These contain omega-3 fatty acids这些都含有欧美加3脂肪酸which are essential,这种脂肪酸是必需脂肪酸meaning the body cannot make them意味着身体自身不能产生这种酸so they must be supplied from the diet.因此必须通过饮食获取Omega-3 fatty acids decrease cardiovascular disease欧美加3脂肪酸能够降低患心血管疾病的风险and improve heart and blood vessel function.增强心脏和血管功能During pregnancy, omega-3 fatty acids在期,欧美加3脂肪酸are also important in brain development of the fetus.对胎儿的大脑发育也是非常重要的Nutrient supplementation during pregnancy期的营养补充can be confusing.比较复杂Generally starting a prenatal vitamin is advised通常建议在怀前就用一种产前维生素before becoming pregnant to ensure adequate levels以保身体到产前of essential nutrients before conception.一直都有足够的基本营养But starting a prenatal vitamin early in the pregnancy但是,在怀早期开始用产前维生素is also beneficial.也是很有好处的A supplement is advised for women建议怀有多胎的女性with multiple fetuses用补品because of the higher nutritional needs,因为身体需要更多的营养for women with HIV or drug use这也适合携带HIV病毒或者吸毒的妇and women who consume little or no meat.还有很少吃肉的妇It is important to remember that应当记住the purpose of the multivitamin is to用多种维生素的目的在于complement the existing diet补充现有的膳食and not to substitute for an unhealthy diet.而不是取代一种不健康的饮食方法If you are meeting your necessary如果能够自己满足nutritional requirements on your own,自身的营养需求then supplementation may not be needed.则不需要补品Seeking professional advice寻求专业的建议from an obstetrician is best最好是从产科医师那儿获取before deciding on taking a supplement.应当在用某种补品前寻求建议There are some foods to avoid during pregnancy.怀期间应当避免一些食物These include beverages or sports drinks包括饮料或者运动型饮料and foods containing a high amount of sugar and/or sodium.含糖量特别高或含纳特别多的食物High sodium intakes may lead to摄入太多钠元素会导致an increased blood pressure血压升高and high sugar foods add calories含糖量高的食物只能增加热量without nutritional value.而没有任何营养价值Several foods that increase risk of有几种食物都能够引发food borne illnesses should also be avoided相应的疾病,因此要避免食用including raw or undercooked eggs这些食物包括生鸡蛋which may carry salmonella, unpasteurized juices生鸡蛋可能携带沙门氏菌,未高温消毒的果汁or dairy products, undercooked meat, poultry,奶制品,火候不够的肉,禽类and fish, and deli meats which may contain listeria鱼肉和熟食可能含有李斯特菌属which is of particular concern for pregnant women.妇应当尤为注意这一细菌In addition, raw vegetable sprouts can contain E. coli此外,生蔬菜可能含有大肠杆菌or salmonella, and soft cheeses such as Caso Fresco或沙门氏菌,软质干酪that have not been pasteurized可能没有经过巴氏消毒may contain pathogenic bacteria.因此会含有病原菌Food borne illnesses during pregnancy妇怀期间食物引发的疾病may be more severe than in non-pregnant individuals可能比对未怀的人还要严重and may affect the fetus.还可能影响胎儿Fish consumption may also need to be moderated鱼肉的食用量也应加以控制to avoid mercury contamination.以避免汞污染This brings me to my next point.这正好涉及到了我要讲的另一点Fish intake is a controversial topic食用鱼肉是个很受争议的话题for pregnant women.主要是对妇而言While fish is a highly desirable food for pregnancy尽管鱼肉对怀的人而言是很不错的食物because of the high protein value and healthy fats,因为它蛋白质含量和健康脂肪含量高there is concern for contamination with mercury但是人们又担心汞污染and other heavy metals.和其他重金属污染201503/364014

  Chinas new targets for 20152015年中国的新目标At the opening session of the NPC,Premier Li keqiang outlined the governments goals for the upcoming year.在全国人民代表大会开幕式上,国务院总理李克强介绍了政府在接下来一年的工作目标。GDP growth target for this year is lowered to about seven percent, and the consumer price index increase set at 3 percent.今年的国内生产总值增长目标降至约7%,而居民消费价格指数增至3%。On the employment front-creating 10 million new job in urban areas, and lowering the jobless rate to 4.5 percent.而就业方面则是在城镇增加1000万个新的就业机会,失业率降至4.5% 。The growth of personal income should keep pace with the rate of economic development.同时个人收入增长也应跟上经济发展的步伐。To maintain steady growth, the goal is to increase imports and exports by 6 percent, while maintaining the balance of payment.为了稳定增长,目标是增加6%的进出口,同时保持收平衡。And with environmental protection a key concern, the government aims to cut energy intensity by 3.1 percent this year, compared with a 4.8 percent cut in 2014.而环境保护列为重中之重,同2014年降低4.8%相比较,今年政府计划将能源强度降低至3.1%。201503/364624


  小行星撞击得到了全部关注。但是《美狄亚假说》的作者Peter Ward认为地球上物种大灭绝是由低等细菌引起的。罪魁祸首是一种叫做硫化氢的有毒物质,在医学上,它可能会成为一种有趣的应用。201501/355555

  The educational materials presented here were developed此处展示的教育材料由by students and faculty of the department of food爱荷华州立大学食品科学与营养学的师生science and human nutrition at Iowa State University.共同制作Funding for this project was provided from grants from该项目资金由the American Cancer Society Mid West美国癌症协会中西部分会及and the Lance Armstrong Foundation.兰斯,阿姆斯特朗基金会共同资助The materials are intended for educational use and此资料仅旨在教学使用are not meant to provide medical advice.无意提供任何医学建议We welcome your feedback about these materials.我们期待您对这些资料的意见反馈Please use the evaluation survey link on the homepage请使用主页上的教育调查链接to provide your comments and suggestions.发表您的意见和建议Folate.叶酸Water soluble vitamins include水溶性维生素包括the B complex vitamins and vitamin C.复合维生素B和维生素CThe B complex vitamins are often associated with复合维生素B经常giving a person more energy.与提供人体能量有关This is due to the fact that these vitamins each play这是因为这些维生素在different roles with energy metabolism in the body.人体能量代谢中都发挥不同的作用When they are present in the body当它们出现在身体里时they allow energy to be used more easily.人体便可以更加有效地利用能量Since these vitamins are also water soluble, they与脂溶性维生素储存在体内不同are not stored in the body like fat soluble vitamins.这些维生素都是水溶性的They dissolve in water and are excreted from the body它们可以溶解在水中并通过尿液排出体外in urine therefore it is important to consume foods因此每天食用富含这些维生素的食物对满足rich in these vitamins each day in order to fulfill the人体需要非常重要bodys needs. Folate is found in dark leafy greens叶酸常存在于深色绿叶蔬菜中such as broccoli, spinach, okra and asparagus.例如西兰花,菠菜,秋葵,芦笋Liver is also a great source of this nutrient.动物肝脏也是这一营养物质的重要来源Like many other water soluble vitamins同很多其他的水溶性维生素一样fortified breakfast cereal is also a good source.强化谷物早餐也是一个很好的来源This may be one of the most effective ways to get this这或许是获得这一营养最有效的途径之一nutrient because absorption tends to be greater in因为强化食物中的营养物质更易被吸收foods that are fortified. Other foods that also provide其他含有叶酸的食物包括folate include citrus fruits, lentils and whole grains.柑橘类水果,扁豆及全部的谷物Folate plays many important roles in the body.叶酸在人体中有很多重要的作用It is important in the synthesis of red blood cells它对于红细胞的合成非常重要which prevents anemia from occurring in the body.而红细胞可以避免人体发生贫血Folate is also critical in the production of new cells叶酸在新细胞的产生中也起着关键的作用which makes this nutrient vital for proper growth and因此这一营养物质对于人体正常的生长发育development. Folate consumption is extremely important至关重要,对于育龄妇女来说in women of child bearing age. Neural tube defects食用叶酸极其重要,胎儿的神经管缺损疾病such as spina bifida are a result of a deficiency of folate比如脊柱裂就是缺少叶酸的后果which can occur in the embryo这可能会发生在妇女意识到自己怀之前before a woman even realizes she is pregnant;也就是胚胎形成初期therefore it is critical for a women to increase因此妇女在怀之前或怀之后的最初几周the intake of folate before she becomes pregnant and增加叶酸的摄入in the first few weeks after becoming pregnant.是非常关键的400 micrograms is the recommended daily allowance叶酸每日推荐的摄入量为400微克of folate, however women who are planning on但是,准备怀或已经怀的妇女becoming pregnant or women who are pregnant每日叶酸的摄入量应为should consume 600 micrograms of folate each day.600微克The upper limit is 1000 micrograms each day. The intake每日的上限为1000微克of too much folate has been shown to mask the anemia摄入过多的叶酸被明会掩盖associated with the deficiency caused by vitamin B12,因缺乏维生素B12而导致的贫血this could be a problem because the anemia is being这将会成为一个问题corrected, the nerve problems associated with因为叶酸可以纠正贫血vitamin B12 are not corrected by folate.却无法纠正与维生素B12相关的神经问题In summary the water soluble vitamins总之,包括复合维生素B在内的include the B complex vitamins水溶性维生素有which are B12, B6, Folate and Vitamin C; these vitamins维生素B12 B6 叶酸和维生素Care necessary for many different functions within the人体内的各项功能都需要这些维生素body but since these vitamins are water soluble and are且既然这些维生素都是水溶性的excreted instead of stored you must get these vitamins可以排出体外而非贮存在体内中in your diet each day. Aim to get your folate你一定要将叶酸纳入每日的饮食中by eating a variety of different foods即通过每天使用不同的食物来获取叶酸such as lentils, dark leafy greens and citrus fruits.例如扁豆,深色绿叶蔬菜和柑橘类的水果201501/355970


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