原标题: 苏州大学附属第二医院丰胸多少钱飞度技术免费问
The U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Justice Department have ;formally acknowledged; that almost all of the examiners ;in an elite FBI forensic unit gave flawed testimony; against criminal defendants for more than two-decades before 2000, a leading newspaper reports.美国主要报纸《华盛顿邮报》报道,美国联邦调查局和司法部“正式承认”,在2000年之前的20多年里,联邦调查局精英法医团队中的几乎所有的检验者在针对刑事案件被告中给出了有缺陷的词。The Washington Post reported Sunday the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers and the Innocence Project say 26 of the 28 examiners with the FBI Laboratory#39;s microscopic hair comparison unit ;overstated forensic matches; to favor prosecutors in more than 95 percent of the 268 trials reviewed.《华盛顿邮报》星期天报道,全国刑事辩护律师协会和法律援助组织“无辜项目”说,在对268个审判案件的复查中有95%以上的案件显示,在联邦调查局实验室显微镜毛发对比鉴定团队的28名检验人员当中,有26人为了有利于检方而“夸大了法医匹配”的结果。The reviewed cases included 32 defendants who were sentenced to death. Fourteen of them have either been executed or died in prison, the two groups said.这两个组织说,复查的案子包括已被判处死刑的32名被告,他们中的14人或已被执行死刑,或已死在狱中。The errors by the FBI do not mean there was not other evidence to convict the defendants.联邦调查局的错误并不意味着法庭缺乏其他据判定被告有罪。An FBI and Justice Department statement said they ;are committed to ensuring that affected defendants are notified of past errors and justice is done in every instance.;联邦调查局和司法部发布的声明说,他们保确保将过去的疏漏告知受到影响的被告,并保正义在每一起案子中得以伸张。 /201504/370870White hat hackers revealed白帽黑客身份被揭露The majority of Chinese ;white hat hackers; are young people born in the 1990s, according to China#39;s first survey on the subject, initiated by an online ;geek; community called GeekPwn.由极客在线社区GeekPwn发起的中国首份《白帽黑客调查报告》显示,90后年轻人成为中国白帽黑客的主力军。White hat hackers are information security personnel using online hacking skills to help maintain Internet safety.;白帽黑客;指利用黑客技术维护网络安全的信息安全工作人员。Some 61% were born in the 1990s, while 30% were born in the 1980s and 4% in the 1970s, according to the report.根据该报告,90后白帽黑客的比例约为61%,80后占30%,70后则占4%。The report also says that 55% of white hat hackers make no more than RMB100,000 a year, and only 5% have an annual income above RMB500,000.报告还显示,55%的;白帽黑客;年收入在10万以下,仅有5%的人年薪超过50万。 /201506/380289

Civil drones are gaining popularity with expanded use from photo and shooting to delivery. Yet a team from a college in Shanghai has warned that these devices can be easily hijacked by hackers for malicious purposes.随着无人机的功能从拍摄照片、视频甚至扩展到可以快递,民用无人机越来越受到欢迎。然而一个来自于上海的大学生团队警示说,无人机设备很容易遭到黑客的恶意侵入。Chen Peng, a postgraduate student from Shanghai University of Science and Technology, showed how hacking takes place with the help of his professor Chen Hao.陈鹏,上海科技大学的一名研究生,在导师陈浩的帮助下展示了黑客如何入侵无人机。The 23-year-old connected a cellphone to his computer through Wi-Fi. As he input a series of instructions into the computer, the cellphone started to display the image captured by the controlled drone. He also managed to control the movement of the lens on the drone to select whatever angle he wanted.这名23岁的学生通过无线网连接了手机和电脑。在他将一系列程序输入电脑时,手机开始显示被无人机控制的画面。他努力控制无人机机翼按照他想要的角度运转。Chen Peng developed the hacking system as his graduation project for his bachelor degree. He said the loophole in drones can be used for both good and bad purposes. ;For example, if a popular figure wants to escape the paparazzi, my system can help them detect the drones around them and control the device to protect their own privacy.;陈鹏开发黑客系统来作为硕士毕业设计。他说无人机的漏洞不光有坏处,也有好处。“例如,如果名人想逃避仔队的烦扰,我的系统可以帮助他发现和控制他周围的无人机设备来保护他的个人隐私。”The drone they used in experiments is made by a Shenzhen company, which ;Dominates 70 percent of China’s drone market;, according to Chen Hao. ;As we are studying Info-security and mobile technology, we want to find solutions to security loopholes in these daily-used devices.;陈浩教授介绍,他们用于实验的无人机由深圳一家公司制造,这款无人机占据了中国无人机市场的70%。“因为我们研究的是信息安全和移动技术,我们想找到这些日常设备安全漏洞的解决方法。”The team has briefed the drone company on the defects in their products and instructed them to improve safety measures. The company also plans to invite the team to the test its future products.这个小组已经向无人机生产公司介绍了他们产品的缺陷,并提示公司提供安全防范措施。无人机制造公司计划邀请陈鹏的小组加入到他们未来产品的检测队伍中。 /201512/414047No matter how sharp you are, a new computer program will always win at this type of poker.在纸牌游戏中不管你是个多么厉害的角色,新电脑程序总是会赢过你。The best poker player in the world doesn#39;t have a poker face. In fact - it has no face at all.世界上最好的纸牌玩家没有扑克脸(面无表情),甚至连有没有脸都谈不上。The new poker expert is an algorithm (AL-go-RITH-em), or problem-solving program. Called Cepheus, it has solved one form of this card game. ;Solved,; in this case, means the program knows the game well enough to win against any human.最新纸牌专家是一种演算法,一种叫做Cepheus能解决问题的程序,它已经solved(搞定)了这种纸牌游戏中一种玩法。;solved;在这里指该程序对这个游戏了如指掌,无论和谁比,它都会赢。And this new algorithm may be useful beyond the card table. It can win at poker even without knowing what cards the other players are hiding. That skill may be useful elsewhere. For instance, it might help guide business decisions or predict terrorist attacks. In those circumstances, a decision-maker will seldom have all of the information he or she feels are needed.这种新的改进算法可用于牌桌上。使用这种方法无需知道其他玩家手里的藏牌你就能轻而易举夺冠。此外这项技能也会在应用到其他方面。比如说引导商业决策,预测恐怖袭击等。在这些情况下,一个决策者几乎没有他或她感觉应该所需要的信息。The algorithm is ;a big step toward understanding games that are closer to real-world problems,; says Murray Campbell. This computer scientist works at IBM#39;s Thomas J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights, N.Y. Campbell did not work on the new study. He did, however, help develop a computer called Deep Blue. In 1997, it defeated world champion Garry Kasparov at chess.就职于美国约克敦海茨国际商用机器公司托马斯·沃森研究中心的计算机科学家Murray Campbell称能够透彻的了解一个如此接近现实世界问题的游戏,algorithm可谓是个很大的进步。N.Y. Campbell没有参与此次新研究,但他助力开发了一款叫做深蓝的计算机,并于1997年战胜了国际象棋冠军Garry Kasparov。For decades, scientists have been designing computers that can win games. There#39;s even a branch of mathematics - game theory - that focuses on finding the best strategies in competitive situations. And using such strategies, some computers have performed quite well.几十年来,科学家一直致力于开发一款能在游戏方面所向披靡的电脑,甚至还涉及到一大堆数学公式,即弈论,这是一种专注于在竞争情况下找到最好对策的方法,并且很多电脑对于这一策略的运行已经相当出色。But poker is a harder game. Unlike in checkers, poker players cannot see everyone#39;s pieces (or here, cards). Another difference: In checkers, every turn has a best move. But for poker, champs don#39;t always play the same way. To win, a good player might choose to fool his or her opponents, known as bluffing.但纸牌属于更难的游戏。它不像跳棋那么明显,纸牌玩家看不到任何人的牌。另一个不同之处在于:在西洋跳棋中,每一步都会有最好的选择。但对于纸牌玩家来说,厉害角色不总是按套路出牌。如果你想赢,那么你就要学会怎样迷惑对手,学会怎样去唬人。译文属 /201506/383382Samsung Electronics Co Ltd plans to bring forward the unveiling of its next Galaxy S smartphone to January in an attempt to compete better with rival Apple Inc#39;s new iPhones, South Korea#39;s Electronic Times reported on Tuesday, citing unnamed sources.韩国《电子时报》周二援引未具名消息人士报导称,三星电子计划将下一代Galaxy S智能手机的发布时间提前至明年1月,以期能更好地与苹果的新款iPhone竞争。Samsung has in recent years announced new Galaxy S smartphones on the sidelines of the Mobile World Congress trade show, which usually takes place between late February and early March. The world#39;s top smartphone maker unveiled its Galaxy Note 5 device in August this year, however, earlier than the typical September announcement.近几年,三星一直在世界移动通信大会(MWC)的间隙发布新款Galaxy S。MWC通常在2月末与3月初期间举行。今年8月,三星发布Galaxy Note 5,较通常的9月发布有所提前。A Samsung spokeswoman said the firm does not comment on rumors or speculation.一位三星发言人称,公司不会对至今为止出现的传言和揣测作出评价。The South Korean firm has been unable to arrest its smartphone market slide despite a product lineup revamp. Researcher TrendForce says Samsung#39;s smartphone shipments will shrink by 1 percent this year, marking the firm#39;s first-ever annual decline.尽管每年都会推出新的产品,但是这家韩国电子公司已经不能阻止智能手机市场萎靡和下滑这一趋势了。市调机构TrendForce近日表示:今年三星智能手机的销售量相比往年已经下滑了1%,这也标志着该公司多年来第一次下滑。 /201511/409314

NAO, The Humanoid Robot Helps Students Master Handwriting Skills智能机器人指导书写Just a few weeks ago, NAO, the humanoid robot made headlines when it became Mitsubishi Bank#39;s first non-human employee. Now the cute 23-inch tall robot that weighs a mere 5.5 kilograms (12.7 pounds) is in the news again. This time around NAO is helping students develop good handwriting skills.就在几周前,NAO智能机器人成为三菱第一位非人类职员的消息备受热议。现在,这个高23英尺,重量只有5.5kg(12.8磅)的可爱机器人又再一次引起人们的注意。这次的新闻主要是有关NAO帮助学生矫正字体。What#39;s interesting about the NAO CoWriter is that it teaches kids while pretending to learn writing skills from them. The process begins with a student showing NAO alphabet magnets of the word they want it to write. The cute robot carefully studies the Quick Response (QR) codes assigned to each alphabet and then tries to write them on a digital tablet. The assignment is then handed to the ;teacher; who makes the appropriate corrections and returns it to the robot for a redo. NAO CoWriter tries again, using the corrections to improve. The duo continues until the ;teacher; is satisfied with his/her robot student#39;s penmanship. NAO CoWriter有趣的地方是通过模拟让孩子们纠正它的书写的方法来帮助孩子改进。首先,学生会展示给NAO他们想写单词的磁性的字母;随后,它会认真研究每个字母上的二维码,然后试着在平板上写出来。平板上的作业由“老师”批改后,再返还给机器人订正。NAO CoWriter这时会按照“老师”的批改再次拼写改正。这个过程会一直持续,直到“老师”满意机器人学生的书写为止。Researchers believe that this innovative role reversal not only improves the student#39;s handwriting skills but also helps boost his/her confidence. Of course, while NAO appears quite the novice learner to the students who range from six to eight years in age, the activity is carefully orchestrated. 研究者相信这种角色互换不仅能帮助学生改进书写,还能增加他们的信心。虽然,NAO比6-8岁的学生表现稍差一点,但整个演示过程还是比较和谐的。Unveiled on March 3rd at a Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI), held in Portland, Oregon, the NAO CoWriter is still in the prototype stage. While the classroom trials to test the long-term effectiveness of its mathematical algorithms were successful, there is still more to be done. In the upcoming summer months, further tests will be conducted to measure the robot#39;s success in the learning process and also to see if it is user-friendly enough to be incorporated into a daily classroom routine. If all goes well, NAO may become an even more frequent sight at schools around the world. Buckle up! School is about to get more exciting!NAO CoWriter在3月3日俄勒冈州波特兰举行的HRI大会上首次亮相,现在处于初始发展阶段。虽然在课堂上测试它算法的长期可行性进展比较顺利,对于在孩子学习过程中的有效性检测和是否能够用在日常教学中这两点,还有待进一步检测。如果一切顺利,NAO将在全球学校中广泛应用。所以,让我们对更加有趣的课堂拭目以待吧。译文属原创,仅供学习和交流使用,未经许可,。 /201509/394956More than half a century ago, when he was just 18 years old, Georges* learned that he had retinitis pigmentosa. He was told that his vision would progressively deteriorate until he was blind. As predicted, when Georges reached his early fifties, his world went completely dark. Last year, at the push of a button, Georges suddenly saw light again. “When they got the electrodes going, it was a real fireworks show,” he exclaims.50多年前,当乔治斯还是个18岁的小伙子时,不幸患上了色素性视网膜炎。他被告知视力将逐渐退化,直至全盲。不出所料,到了50多岁时,他的世界变得完全漆黑一片。但是去年,就在一个按钮被按下的瞬间,乔治斯突然重新见到了光明。他惊呼道:“当他们通上电以后,感觉真的就像烟花表演一样。”Georges is part of a pilot program testing Iris, a product to restore vision to blind people, made by a young French company called Pixium Vision. The company’s founder, Bernard Gilly, is a scientist-turned-entrepreneur with a network of businesses focused on using technologies to improve human health, mostly around the nervous system.这款神奇的产品名叫Iris系统,旨在帮助盲人恢复视力。它是由一家名叫Pixium Vision,成立没多久的法国企业开发的,乔治斯正是首批试验该设备的病人之一。该公司的创始人伯纳德o吉利原本是一位科学家,旗下拥有多家致力于利用科技(大多围绕神经系统)改善人体健康的企业。“Ophthalmology seemed like a good way to approach the central nervous system because the eye, and especially the retina, is like a visible part of the brain,” Gilly says, noting that France counts 200,000 people in the country who are blind or nearly blind, and that generally there is no cure. “People are unaware of how prevalent the condition is because there are not many blind people in the streets. They are more prone to accidents, so they tend to stay home.”吉利指出:“眼科是研究人体中枢视经系统的一个好途径,因为眼睛、特别是视网膜,就像是大脑的一个可见部分。”他指出,法国有约20万人处于全盲或接近全盲,而且基本上是没法治愈的。“很多人不了解这种情况有多普遍,这是因为我们在街上看不到很多盲人,因为他们在室外容易发生事故,所以他们倾向于待在家里。”Technological advances such as microbiology and microelectronics are creating new opportunities to restore sight, Gilly says, and scientists are making enormous strides in understanding the workings of the brain. It’s long been known that electricity can stimulate the nervous system, and a technique called “neuromodulation” is being used to address everything from Parkinson’s disease to chronic pain. Now, it can treat blindness, too.吉利表示,微生物学与微电子学等领域的技术进步,为盲人复明带来了新的希望。另外科学家也付出了大量努力来理解大脑的工作机制。我们很久以前就知道电流可以刺激人的神经系统,另外,我们已经开始使用一种叫做“神经调节”的技术来治疗帕金森症和各种慢性疼痛。现在,这项技术也能治疗眼盲了。The best candidates for Iris are patients with degenerative eye conditions. A surgeon implants a tiny silicon chip with 150 electrodes on the retina. Afterwards, the patient wears a pair of dark glasses with an integrated camera that sends images to a portable mini-computer. This computer transforms the pictures into digital signals, which are sent back to the glasses, then transmitted wirelessly to a receiver on the implant. Pulses activate the electrodes, and the optic nerve carries the images to the brain.最适合使用Iris的是那些患有退化性眼病的患者。医生向患者的视网膜内植入一块带有150个电极的微小芯片。手术后,患者需要戴上一副专用的墨镜,其中的集成摄像机可以向一台微型便携电脑传送图像。这台电脑随后把图像转换成数字信号,回传到墨镜上,然后再无线传输至植入芯片的接收器上。电子脉冲会激活电极,人的视神经便会将图像传送到大脑。After surgery, patients follow a program of rehabilitation to teach their brains how to interpret these new images. What they see is basic shapes in variations of black, white, and gray. (The resolution is still too low for them to distinguish facial features or .)在接受手术后,患者需要参加一个康复项目,以教会他们的大脑如何解读这些新的图像。他们所见到的只是一些黑白灰色的基本形状。(这套解决方案目前尚不能让患者重新阅读或识别面部特征。)“We don’t give them back their sight, but another way of seeing,” says Yannick Le Mer, the surgeon who implanted the system in three of Pixium’s test subjects. Le Mer says it is impossible to know beforehand how anyone will react, since it depends on each brain’s adaptability—like learning to play the piano or speak Japanese. Some catch on immediately, while others struggle.亚尼克o拉o梅尔已经将这套系统植入三名测试者的眼球中。他表示:“我们没有让他们重获视力,但提供了另一种让他们看见的办法。”拉o梅尔表示,目前无法知道每名患者的反应如何,因为它取决于每个大脑的适应性——就像学钢琴或学日语一样,有的人学得很快,但也有人学得非常慢。One recent autumn day, Georges, a small, soft-spoken man, traveled from his home in Brittany to the Quinze-Vingts hospital in eastern Paris. A young therapist named Alexandre Leseigneur was waiting for him, and the two spent the day together practicing using the system in the corridors. (The glasses were not yet available for practice at home.)去年秋天,一位个头不高,说话轻声软语的男人从布列塔尼老家来到了巴黎东部的Quinze-Vingts眼科医院。他就是乔治斯。一位名叫亚历山大的医生正在等着他。他们在医院走廊里用了两天时间学习怎样使用这套系统。(目前这套系统还不能用于在家练习)。Georges put the glasses on and hung a strap with the computer over his shoulder. The first time they went into the hallway, he moved hesitantly, shuffling sideways and reaching out his hand. “The flashes are too bright. I’m lost,” he said. Leseigneur plugged the glasses into a laptop computer, adjusted the settings, and they went out again. This time was better. Following a black band on the floor, Georges walked the length of a corridor and even managed to avoid an obstacle blocking his path.乔治斯戴上了眼镜,用一根带子把电脑挎在了肩上。第一次,他们先去了走廊。乔治斯移动得很犹豫,脚步蹒跚地向前蹭着,伸手摸着。他说:“光线太亮了,我迷路了。”亚历山大将墨镜插到一台笔记本电脑上,调整了设置,然后他们又出去了。这一次好了一些。沿着地上的黑色图案,乔治亚走完了一个走廊的长度,甚至还绕过了路上的一个障碍物。Gilly estimates that when the Iris arrives on the European market in late 2015, the cost to each patient will be around 100,000 euros, plus surgery. Though that might sound expensive, he says it’s a bargain compared to the price of blindness. A study at the University of Chicago forecasts that in the ed States alone, costs related to eye disease and vision problems will reach 7 billion by 2050.吉利预测称,等到Iris系统2015年末正式投放欧洲市场,每名患者的成本大概会在10万欧元左右,另外再加上手术费。虽然这笔费用听起来很贵,但吉利表示,和失明相比,花这笔钱还是很划算的。芝加哥大学的一项研究表明,光是在美国,到2050年,由眼病和视力问题导致的成本就将高达7170亿美元。Last June, Pixium made an initial public offering, raising nearly 40 million euros (more than million) from European investors. It is not the only company working in this field. Various permutations of what is commonly called a “bionic eye”—Gilly dislikes the term—are being developed from Germany to Australia. The pioneer is an American company, Second Sight Medical, which earned European approval for its Argus II system in 2011 and FDA approval in 2013. In November, Second Sight had its own successful IPO, raising some million.去年六月,Pixium公司进行了IPO,从欧洲投资人手中融资近4000万欧元(约合5300多万美元)。Pixium并不是唯一一家从事失明领域研究的企业。从德国到澳大利亚,许多企业都在开发俗称的“仿生眼”。其中一家名叫“第二视觉医疗公司”(Second Sight Medical)的美国企业走得最远,它的Argus II系统已经于2011年通过了欧洲认,又于2013年通过了FDA(美国食物及药品)认。去年11月,第二视觉公司也成功进行了IPO,融资约3200万美元。While the Iris is very similar to the Argus II, Gilly mentions a few key differences. His camera, for example, captures only the changes in the environment, so that the overall view is continuous, closer to the way the human eye actually sees. The implant can also be easily removed and replaced with upgrades as they become available.虽然Iris与Argus II系统非常类似,但吉利也指出了一些不同之处。比如Iris的摄像头只捕捉环境的变化,所以它的总体视觉是持续不断的,更贴近真实人眼的视觉模式。另外,眼内的植入物也可以被轻易移除并更换升级版。The company’s next generation product, Prima, will start clinical trials in 2016. With at least 10 times as many electrodes, it should enable people to and to see facial features. “Patients tell us that what they want first is autonomy and safety,” says Gilly. “After that, they want to be able to recognize their loved ones, to see their spouses or their grandchildren.”该公司的下一代产品Prima将于2016年开始临床测试。Prima的电极比Iris多了10倍,应该可以让失明者重新恢复阅读和识别面部特征的能力。吉利表示:“病人告诉我们,他们首先想要的是自主性和安全性。其次,他们希望能够认出他们所爱的人,看到他们的爱人或孙子。”Since this is synthetic vision, the possibilities are vast. Soon the technology will permit users to see as clearly at night as during the day. A future device might be able to transmit the contents of an e-book or a movie directly to the retina. For now, Le Mer says, the goal is simply to help someone locate a door in a room. “It seems modest, but it’s huge.”由于它是一种合成视觉,因此它拥有广阔的可能性。很快,这项技术就可以让用户“视黑夜如白昼”。未来的某款设备甚至有可能直接将一本电子书或电影的内容投射到人的视网膜上。不过拉o梅尔表示,他们目前的目标还只是帮助盲人找到一间屋子的门。“看起来似乎不是很宏大的目标,但意义非常重大。”Georges agrees. He tells about how not long ago he was taking a walk near his home. “There was a truck parked across the sidewalk. My cane slipped under it, so I didn’t know it was there, and I smacked my head. If I had been using this system, I would have seen it.”乔治斯也同意这一点。他告诉我们,前不久在他家附近散步时,“人行道对面停了一辆卡车,我的手杖探到车子下面去了,所以我不知道车子停在那儿,结果撞到了头。如果当时我已经用上了这个系统,我就会看到它了。”(财富中文网) /201502/358730As NASA prepares for the debut test flight of the first spaceship in more than 40 years to carry astronauts beyond Earth, a fleet of privately owned vehicles is in development to take over transportation services to and from orbits closer to home.40多年来美国宇航局准备首次试飞第一艘宇宙飞船将携带宇航员到地球之外,一家私人公司正在开发接管从地球到轨道的运输务。Whether heading to the International Space Station, which flies about 260 miles above the planet, or other destinations, the journeys begin with rocket rides that have enough muscle to counteract Earth#39;s gravity and get their cargo traveling at speeds of at least 17,500 mph to achieve orbit.不管前往国际空间站然后在距地球大约260英里处旋转,或是转到他目的地,旅行从火箭发射起,必须有足够的力量来抵消地球引力发送他们的货物以至少17500英里每小时的速度进入轨道。NASA, for example, is using the biggest booster in the U.S. fleet, a Delta 4 Heavy, to shoot its Orion deep-space capsule as far as 3,600 miles from Earth during a test flight scheduled for Thursday. The key point of the test is to get Orion moving at about 20,000 mph before it slams into Earth#39;s atmosphere to test its heat shield.美国国家航空航天局(NASA),在周四即将使用美国私营公司最大的助推器(德而它斯重型火箭发动机),将把“猎户号深空探测器”太空舱发送距离地球3600英里处。测试的重点是测试它的隔热板,就是让猎户座以20000英里每小时的速度猛烈撞击地球大气层。Even suborbital spaceships, such as Virgin Galactic#39;s SpaceShipTwo and XCOR Aerospace#39;s Lynx space place, rely on rocket power to leave the atmosphere, though gravity quickly pulls them back to Earth. They don#39;t necessarily have to launch from land, however.甚至亚轨道太空飞船,如维珍二号宇宙飞船和XCOR公司航空航天的山猫亚轨道飞船,仍然依靠火箭离开大气层,不过重力很快把他们拉回地球。他们不一定要从地面发射。SpaceShipTwo, for example, is carried by airplane and released mid-air to fire its rocket, a design also used by the experimental X-15 space plane in the 1960s. Air-launching uses smaller rockets than those needed for similar ground-based flights, eliminates the need for expensive launch pads and opens options for launch sites, since the planes can take off from commercial runways.例如,太空飞船二号是由飞机携载和火箭空中发射,使用的设计也在1960年代发布的一个实验性的前身航天飞机原形。空中发射火箭使用小型火箭而不用类似有地面发射台的,不需要启动昂贵的发射台发射站点,因为飞机可以从商业跑道起飞。More diverse are the spacecraft designs the companies have chosen, reflecting not only different technical solutions to the challenges of flying people beyond Earth, but also their alternative visions of the future.更加多样化航天器设计公司精心选择结果,这反映了不同的技术解决方案来面对地球之外的挑战,而且这也改变着未来。FORM DICTATES FUNCTION结构影响功能NASA preceded its so-called Commercial Crew development effort with a program to buy flights for space station cargo. Two U.S. supply lines are now running, though one operator, Orbital Sciences Corp, is regrouping after a launch accident last month. The other company flying cargo for NASA is California-based Space Exploration Technologies, owned and run by technology entrepreneur Elon Musk.NASA为空间站货物购买航班的商业模式,是由两个美国供应链运行,不过一个运营商因为上个月发射事故而重组。另一家是加州太空探索技术基地,拥有和经营的这家科技企业的是伊隆马斯克(Tesla的创始人)。From the start, SpaceX designed its Dragon capsule to not only fly cargo, but also crew. ;Cargo doesn#39;t need windows,; Musk quipped before the capsule#39;s first flight to the space station in 2012. Upgrades are underway to add life support equipment, seating and an escape system for crew, but SpaceX has even grander ambitions for its gumdrop-shaped Dragon. It isdesigned to fly people to Mars.从一开始,SpaceX公司设计了“龙”太空舱不仅飞货物,而且能飞船员。马斯克在太空舱2012年第一次飞往国际空间站时打趣道:“货物不需要windows。升级正在进行中,以添加生命持设备、座椅和一个宇航员逃生系统,但SpaceX 对于具有三层保护装置的太空舱有更大的保护。它的目的是带人们飞往火星。;The long-term ambition of SpaceX is to develop the technologies to establish a self-sustaining civilization on Mars … Wings and runways don#39;t really work if you#39;re going somewhere other than Earth,; Musk said at a Massachusetts Institute of Technology symposium in September.“从的长期来看SpaceX是要利用技术在火星上建立自己的文明…没有了地球你可以在其他地方生活,”马斯克9月在麻省理工学院的研讨会上说。Boeing, too, chose a capsule design for its planned space taxi, known as the Crew Space Transportation (CST)-100. ;The conical shape is inherently stable as we re-enter the atmosphere,; Chris Ferguson, Boeing director of Crew and Mission Systems, said in an interview with Reuters.波音公司也为自己的太空出租车计划选择了一个太空舱设计,称为船员舱运输(CST)-100。“圆锥形状利于我们进入大气层,”克里斯-弗格森,波音公司主管人员在接受路透采访时表示。The capsule, which parachutes to a splashdown in the ocean or a touchdown on land, is intended to improve astronaut safety, added Ferguson, a former NASA space shuttle pilot and commander.带着降落伞的太空舱没入大海之中或降落在陆地上,旨在改善宇航员安全,弗格森补充道,前美国国家航空航天局航天飞机飞行员兼指挥官。Boeing plans to modify the CST-100 if it wins a second NASA solicitation, currently underway, to fly cargo to the station. Cargo and crew would fly separately.如果赢得下一个NASA订单波音公司不得不暂停cst - 100计划,因为货物和船员分别要开飞。;I lived through the (space shuttle) Columbia accident in 2003 and one of the conclusions … was that that including the payload with the people was not the wisest choice. We carried 50,000 pounds of payload (on the shuttle), which was incredible, and up to seven people. But to make the systems safe to carry passengers, you have to make a fairly large vehicle. We think it is a much better approach to have the people and the cargo travel in different vehicles,; he said.“我经历过2003年哥伦比亚号(航天飞机)事故…,负荷太多不是最明智的选择。我们放置50000磅重量在航天飞机上,这是难以置信的一共个7人。所以要使系统安全运送乘客,你必须做出相当大的火箭。我们认为这是一个更好的方法,人们在客船火箭中旅行而不是货船,”他说。THINGS WITH WINGS展翅飞翔Capsules may be simpler to fly and cheaper to build, but they do have limitations. Sierra Nevada#39;s winged Dream Chaser, for example, resembles a miniature space shuttle, with an aerodynamically shaped body and wings so it can fly back from space, rather than make a ballistic plunge through the atmosphere like capsules.太空舱可能是简单和便宜的飞行器,但它们确实有局限性。例如内华达山脉股份公司Sierra Nevada Corporation,简称SNC的有翼的追梦者号,就像一个拥有翅膀和无阻力设计主体的迷你航天飞机,这样就可以从太空飞回来而不是靠穿越大气层的火箭。;We come back with a significantly lower g-force during re-entry,; said Sierra Nevada Vice President Mark Sirangelo, referring to ;gravity force; or a measure of acceleration.;We#39;re about 2 gs and most capsules are 4- to 6. That protects returning experiments and crew,; Sirangelo said in an interview.“返回过程是一个显著下降的低重力过程,“内华达副总裁Mark Sirangelo说,他指的是“地心引力”或加速度的测量。“我们的约是2 gs但是大多数太空舱是4 - 6(这是加速度单位,1Gs就是一倍的地球表面重力加速度)。它更有效保护船员“Sirangelo在接受采访时表示。Like the space shuttle, Dream Chaser is designed for runway, not water, landings, though its small size means it can touch down on most commercial runways anywhere in the world.“The idea of being able to come home to Ellington Field in Houston with an experiment from the space station for Texas Medical Center and have them take if off the vehicle and get it in their labs in a half-hour is very useful,” Sirangelo said.像这种航天飞机,追梦者号是专用跑道,不需要水和降落伞,它的小尺寸意味着它可以在大多数商业跑道降落在世界任何地方。“这样的话得克萨斯州医学中心的空间站能够回到休斯顿的爱玲董菲儿的机场或者用半小时时间就把他们送到实验室是非常有用的,”Sirangelo说。Sierra Nevada currently is protesting NASA#39;s decision to proceed with a final round of development funds and flight services contracts to SpaceX and Boeing. A decision by the U.S. Government Accountability Office is due by Jan. 5. NASA also has an unfunded agreement to work with Jeff Bezos#39; rocket company, Blue Origin.内华达目前抗议美国宇航局决定进行最后一轮发展基金并且与飞行器SpaceX公司和波音公司签订的务合同。由联邦政府会计总署决定(Government Accountability Office)截止日期是1月5日。NASA也有短期协议与杰夫·贝佐斯的火箭公司(蓝源公司(BlueOrigin)是由亚马逊创始人杰夫·贝索斯(JeffBezos)创建的私人太空飞行初创公司,已经在2018无人任务开始前,成功地测试了现有的氢燃料火箭)。In the meantime, Sierra Nevada is pursuing other contracts, including additional station resupply work for NASA that also is drawing bids from SpaceX, Orbital Sciences, Boeing and possibly other contenders.同时,内华达公司正在寻求其他的合同,包括为美国国家航空航天局额外的空间站补给工作,包括为SpaceX公司波音及其轨道科学公司画画图纸,当然可能有其他的竞争者。;We call Dream Chaser a #39;space utility vehicle#39; for a reason. It can accomplish multiple purposes from the same core design, like an AC-130 aircraft. We can do repair missions, change altitudes. Capsules can#39;t do that very easily. We can do construction, like the space shuttle did to build the space station. We can be an independent or co-dependent lab and stay in orbit for one year or longer conducting experiments. From the same basic design, we can contemplate all these missions,; Sirangelo said.“我们叫追梦者“空间多功能飞行器”是有原因的。它可以同时完成多个工作,像ac - 130飞机。我们可以自动完成修复任务甚至改变高度。太空舱就不能那么做。我们可以做建筑,像航天飞机一样建造空间站。我们可以成为一个独立或相互依赖的实验室并且在轨道上停留一年或更长时间进行实验。从设计上看,我们可以完成所有这些任务,”Sirangelo说。Sierra Nevada aly may have landed one customer. Paul Allen#39;s Strato launch Systems, which is building a massive airplane to serve as an airborne rocket-launching platform, announced last month it is considering buying a smaller version of Dream Chaser for commercial passenger spaceflights. The space plane would be attached to the Strato launch mothership for a ride into the atmosphere and then released to fire its own rocket engines and catapult it into space. The system could be used to fly people to and from orbit, as well as for sub-orbital hops, including taking off and landing in different locations, so called ;point-to-point; travel. That#39;s a service that Virgin Galactic, another space tourism startup owned by Richard Branson#39;s Virgin Group, would like to offer as well.内华达公司可能已经有一个客户了。保罗·艾伦的平流层发射系统公司,构建一个庞大的飞机作为机载火箭发射平台,上月宣布它正在考虑购买一个追梦者号较小的版本。航天飞机将附加到平流层发射系统母舰上然后点燃火箭引擎进入太空。系统可以用来发射和接受,以及亚轨道飞行,包括起飞和降落在不同的位置,就是所谓的“点对点”旅行。理查德·布兰森表示维珍集团愿意提供务持。For now, Virgin Galactic#39;s six-passenger, two-pilot space plane, called SpaceShipTwo, will be limited to sub-orbital flights that originate from and return to the same location. The company#39;s first vehicle was destroyed during a fatal test flight inMojave, Calif., on Oct. 31. The second vehicle is under construction. Point-to-point suborbital travel would require a different design, such as a blunter shape to better handle the higher speeds and heat of atmospheric re-entry, and a more powerful rocket engine.目前,维珍的客载六人的双驾驶航天飞机,被称为“宇宙飞船二号”将是有限次轨道飞行。公司的第一架被毁在莫哈韦试飞期间,加州10月31日。第二个正在建设中。点对点的亚轨道旅游需要一个不同的设计,如顿的形状更好的掌握速度但是进入大气温度却很高需要一个更强大的火箭发动机。RISK AND REWARD风险和回报Until the accident, SpaceShipTwo was on track to begin the world#39;s first commercial passenger spaceflight service in 2015 – 11 years after the prototype SpaceShipOne won the million Ansari X Prize for demonstrating private manned spaceflight.Coincidentally, it was 11 years after Wilbur and Orville Wright flew the world#39;s first powered airplane in 1903 that a paying passenger sat in the open cockpit of a boat-shaped Benoist XIV biplane for a ride across Florida#39;s Tampa Bay, the debut flight of the country#39;s first commercial airliner.发生事故到现在,太空飞船二号有望成为世界上第一个商业客运航天役(原型“2015 - 11年后赢得了1000万美元的安萨里X奖(2004年10月4日,由鲁坦(Burt Rutan)设计制造,微软合伙人保罗·艾伦(Paul Allen)投资的价值2500万美元的私人飞船“太空船一号”(SpaceShipOne),赢得了这项奖额1000万美元的安萨里X大奖))。巧合的是,在威尔伯和奥维尔·赖特在1903年发明世界上第一个动力飞机11年以后,敞开式座舱双翼飞机搭载着乘客穿越佛罗里达的坦帕湾实现商业首飞。;If you could have had a conversation with that person who bought the first ride and said, #39;In your lifetime, you#39;re going to be riding in air-conditioned comfort at 35,000 feet, traveling .8 Mach, watching a movie and talking to friends on the ground,#39; that guy would have said, #39;What#39;s a movie?#39; The telephone, the jet … none of that had been invented, but all ofit came into being very, very quickly after the airplane,; said Stu Witt, the chief executive and general manager of the Mojave Air and Space Port.“如果给你一个和第一个坐飞机乘客交谈机会,你会说“在你的一生中,可以在35000英尺高度享受电影空调视频聊天吗,“那个家伙会说,什么是电影?什么是电话,什么是飞机…因为那时这些没有被发明,但是自从有了飞机之后一切都发展的好快“莫哈维太空站负责人斯图威特说So is commercial spaceflight similarly primed?那么,商业航天时刻会来吗?;You put enough humans with brains and eyes and ears and senses in new environments and somebody is going to think of something we haven#39;t thought of. The fashion industry will change. The entertainment industry will change. Something will come out of it that you and I shouldn#39;t even be silly enough to try and forecast,” he said.“新环境之中,时尚界将会改变。界将会改变。世界的发展毋庸置疑,一切东西就会发明出来。”他说。 /201412/348144

7.Facebook Was Voted the Best Company to Work for in 20137.2013年,脸书被选为;最令人向往的公司;Zuckerberg has indisputably changed the Internet with his hyper-successful company. But, Facebook the workplace is not doing too badly either. In 2012, Facebook employed 4,619 people and came in third on the list of the best companies to work that year. But, in 2013, Zuckerberg and Facebook topped the list. Employees can count foosball, an annual game day and ping pong in the office as benefits of working for the company. Facebook also gives employees who have become new parents ,000 in spending money in order to ensure their family has all they need following the birth or adoption of their child.毫无疑问,扎克伯格和他超级成功的公司,改变了互联网。而脸书的工作环境做的也不差。2012年,脸书共有4619名员工,在;最佳办公企业;(the list of the best companies to work)排名中位于第三。但是,在2013年,扎克伯格和他的公司排名第一。员工们把办公室里的桌上足球、一年一度的节( game day)以及乒乓球看做是工作的奖励。脸书还会为初为人父母的员工提供4000美金补贴,以满足家庭在生育或领养小孩后的所有开需求。Facebook#39;s campus is laid out like a small village and includes a bank, a dentist, a doctor, a gym, a barbershop, dry cleaners, coffee shops, sushi restaurants and other leisure opportunities. Employees cite that the best aspects of working at Facebook include the stock options, the food, plenty of work to do, the learning potential and the ability to set your own hours with little interference from management. There are no cubicles in Facebook and Zuckerberg#39;s office is little different from anyone else#39;s – laying down a more egalitarian working environment.脸书的办公场所建造得像个小村庄,、门诊、体育馆、理发店、干洗店、咖啡馆、寿司店还有其他一些休闲场所一应俱全。员工们提出,在脸书工作的最大好处包括优先认购股权、获取食物、充实的工作、开发学习潜能以及可以自主安排工作时间,很少受管理部门的干涉。在脸书没有小隔间,扎克伯格的办公室和其他人没什么两样,营造了一个更平等的工作环境。However, it is not all sunshine and ;likes; at one of the world#39;s most famous tech companies. Employees cite that the politics in the office can be very intense, especially as outside pressure increases. Some say that the vision for product development comes in too late, and that they need more organization both in product development and within the organization as a whole. More than one employee has stated that the management is inexperienced, and it is true that Facebook has had problems recruiting top tech talent in the industry. This could be due to the relaxed atmosphere that some people simply cannot be productive in.但是,在一个举世闻名的科技公司里,不仅仅只有美好的一面。员工们提到,办公室的政策非常强硬,尤其在外来压力不断增加后,政策更加严酷。一些人认为产品开发的设计实施得太晚,在产品开发环节和整个组织内部都需要建立更有力的管理组织机制。许多员工都说到管理部门缺乏经验。确实如此,脸书在招聘工厂高技术员工上存在问题。可能是因为环境太自在,仅此就能导致员工工作效率低下。6.Facebook#39;s Logo and Interface Are Blue Because Mark Zuckerberg Is Red-Green Colorblind6.因为马克·扎克伯格是红绿色盲,所以脸书的商标和界面都为蓝色Have you ever wondered why Facebook has a blue theme? Zuckerberg has often remarked that the reason Facebook is blue is because blue is the color he can see best, and he can see all shades of blue. His house is also painted in various shades of blue and beige. You see, Zuckerberg has re-green color blindness, and he learned that he had this common condition after taking an online test. Red-green colorblindness is the most common form of colorblindness, and red-green colorblindness means that much of the whole color spectrum can be affected with confusion happening between reds, greens, oranges, browns, purples, pinks and grays. Statistically, those with a moderate form of red-green colorblindness will only be able to correctly identify 5 colored pencils from a standard box of 24 pencils. Color-blindness affects around 1 in 12 men around the world. There are a few causes of developed color-blindness but in most cases it is genetic and inherited from the mother. It can also happen as a result of disease, aging or as an adverse effect of medication.你有没有想过为什么脸书的主题是蓝色的呢?像扎克伯格常说的那样,脸书被设计成蓝色是因为蓝色是他看得最清楚的颜色,他能分辨所有的蓝色调。他的房子也被粉刷成深浅不同的蓝色调和米色调。扎克伯格在参加一个网上测试后,他发现自己患了常见的红绿色盲。红绿色盲是最常见的色盲症,它会影响人对整个色谱的辨别能力,在辨别红色、绿色、橙色、棕色、紫色、粉色和灰色时会发生混乱。据统计,那些症状较轻的红绿色盲只能从标准24色铅笔盒中正确识别5种颜色。色盲症影响了世界上1/12的人。色盲症大多从母亲那遗传而来,也有可能是疾病、老年化、药物副作用的结果。5.Aaron Sorkin Was Listed as Zuckerberg#39;s Favorite Director – Until He Wrote ;The Social Network;5.在艾伦·索尔金《社交网络》出来前,他是扎克伯格最喜欢的编剧Zuckerberg is a private guy and doesn#39;t like having his private life displayed by people who aren#39;t a part of it, especially when they get the details wrong. The screenplay was written by Aaron Sorkin of ;West Wing; fame. Sorkin#39;s style is known for being high brow, quippy and full of melodic speeches. But, Zuckerberg said in a few interviews that he found the blatant mistruths in the script hurtful. The drama surrounding Facebook is intriguing enough without an insinuation that Zuckerberg#39;s life work was created to attract girls. Zuckerberg insists that the real story would depict Zuckerberg coding for hours at a time but he realizes that this is not glamorous enough for Hollywood.扎克伯格是个低调的人,他不喜欢向外人展示自己的私人生活,尤其是被人歪曲自己的私生活。因作品《白宫风云》(West Wing)而出名的艾伦·索尔金撰写了电影剧本。他的剧本一贯以多叙事、重情节的风格而著称。但扎克伯格在很多采访中表明,剧本中明显的谬误对他造成了伤害。剧本围绕脸书展开,即使不采用暗讽——扎克伯格的工作生活是为了吸引女性,也足够生动有趣。扎克伯格坚持说,真实世界中的他本人会因编写一次代码耗费数小时,但他意识到凭着这点个人魅力不足以进军好莱坞。Zuckerberg always liked Aaron Sorkin, and he was even listed on Zuckerberg#39;s Facebook page as a favorite director. But, after the film was released, Zuckerberg appears to have removed him from his page. Aaron Sorkin has since apologized and expressed his sympathy for Zuckerberg saying that he didn#39;t set out to try to hurt Zuckerberg#39;s feelings. Sorkin is sorry that Zuckerberg was so offended but is probably not all that sorry that he did it. After all, he did win an Oscar, a Golden Globe and a BAFTA for his screenplay. Sorkin admits that he would not want a film made about the things that he did when he was 19 either, and he understands why Zuckerberg is less than enthusiastic about the film.扎克伯格一直很喜欢艾伦·索尔金,他甚至在脸书的个人主页上把他列为最喜欢的编剧。但是,当电影拍摄出来后,扎克伯格似乎把他从脸书上删除了。艾伦·索尔金曾向扎克伯格道歉,并表示他没有想要伤害扎克伯格的意图。他很遗憾扎克伯格对此反感,但这并不代表是他造成了所有的负面影响。毕竟,索尔金因为这一剧本赢得了奥斯卡、金球奖和英国电影电视艺术学院奖。索尔金承认,他也不想看到一部以他19岁所做的事为素材的电影,所以他理解为什么扎克伯格对这部电影毫不感冒。4.Facebook Was Not Zuckerberg#39;s First Invention4.脸书并不是扎克伯格的第一项发明Zuckerberg began to use his father#39;s computer at around 10 years old. His father, Ed, was an early advocate of the digital future and bought his first hard drive in 1984. He gave his son programming lessons on the family#39;s Atari, and he bought each of his four children a computer. A fast learner, Mark began building a program that connected his father#39;s home and office computers which allowed the family to send messages from one to the other. The family called it ZuckNet.扎克伯格在十岁左右就开始使用他父亲的电脑了。他爸爸是早期数字化时代的持者,在1984年就买了第一张硬盘驱动器。他教扎克伯格关于雅达利(Atari)的程序编制并且为四个孩子分别配备了一台电脑。作为一个学霸,马克很早就开始编制程序,他曾编过一个可以通过连接家里和办公室的电脑,让家人之间相互发送消息的程序。家人们称它为;扎克网;。While in high school, Mark created the Synapse Media Player, which is an app that uses artificial intelligence to a user#39;s listening habits and recommend music based on their apparent music tastes. He created it in the early 2000#39;s and submitted it as a school project. Back in the day, reviews of the app said that is was a very innovative media player, although a bit buggy. Users found it#39;s brain feature to be amazing and that while it is slow going while it is first learning the user#39;s music taste, after a while it becomes very impressive. AOL and Microsoft both took notice of the design and tried to convince him to join their ranks while he was still in high school. Zuckerberg turned them both down and instead proceeded to higher education at Harvard University where he would invent Facebook. Microsoft tried to poach Zuckerberg again a few years later, offering to buy Facebook for billion. Once again, Zuckerberg turned them down preferring to go his own way.高中时,马克就创建了突出媒体播放器——一个利用了人工智能的应用软件。它可以读解用户的收听习惯,为他们推荐符合他们音乐品味的歌曲。他在2000年初创建了它并把它作为一个学校项目上交。那个时候,软件的都表示尽管有一点不完善,但不可否认是一个非常创新的媒体播放器。用户发现它的读解功能很让人惊奇,虽然它在第一次读取用户的音乐兴趣时运行的很慢,但之后的印象就会很深刻。美国在线和微软都注意到了这项设计并且尝试说马克加入他们的队伍,然而马克选择了留在学校继续读书。马克拒绝了他们,并且选择了去哈佛接受高等教育。就是在哈佛,他发明了脸书。几年后,微软再次尝试说马克,且竟愿花1500美元购买他的产品。然而,扎克伯格又一次拒绝了他们,他更愿意走自己的路,自己做主。For all of the support, both educational and financial, that Mark#39;s father gave him, he gifted him 2,000,000 shares of Facebook which are now worth about million.因为父亲在经济和教育方面对他的持,他给了父亲两百万的脸书股份,市值六千万美元。审校:围巾 校对:Candy 旭旭 /201507/386406

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