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2017年12月13日 11:36:52 | 作者:飞度新闻免费平台 | 来源:新华社
The world#39;s first functional 3D printed building was inaugurated in Dubai by Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al-Maktoum, vice-president and prime minister of the ed Arab Emirates (UAE) and ruler of Dubai, Dubai daily Gulfnews reported.据迪拜的《海湾时报》报道,阿联酋的实际统治者、副总统兼总理谢赫·穆罕默德主持了世界上首个功能完善的3D打印建筑的开幕礼。The 3D printed building is an office space covering up to 250 square metres, with its exterior design reflecting ;the most innovative forms of the future workplace,; said the report.据悉,这座3D打印建筑占地面积为250平米,其外观设计反映了“未来办公空间的最先进的理念”。Innovative features adopted in the office building to reduce energy consumption include window shades for protection from direct sunlight and keeping the building cool. The latest technology was used in information systems management in the building, said the report, and the design offers space for exhibitions and workshops as well as other events.该办公楼采用了创新技术以减少能耗,比如设计了百叶窗避免阳光直射,保持室内凉爽。此外,根据报道,大楼的信息系统管理也运用了最先进的技术,其设计提供了展示空间,工作室以及其他活动场所。A 3D printer measuring 20 feet high, 120 feet long and 40 feet wide was used to print the building. The printer uses an automated robotic arm in the printing process.一台高20英尺,长120英尺,宽40英尺的打印机打印出了该建筑。打印过程还使用了自动化机器人手臂。The office building, located in the Business Bay area, only has one ground floor, surrounded by a small park. The design was conceived with the aim of shifting the traditional work environment in order to improve innovation and communication in the workplace.这座办公楼只有一层楼,位于商务湾区,被一个小公园环绕。其设计宗旨是改变传统的工作环境,以提高在工作场所的创新和沟通。The 3D printed office building was constructed using a special mixture of cement and a set of building materials designed and made in the UAE and the ed States. The building materials underwent a range of tests in China and Britain to ensure their reliability, and the arc shape adopted for the building is for safety purposes as it ensures the building#39;s stability.这座3D打印办公楼是用水泥和一系列建筑材料的特殊混合物所建成的。这些材料是在阿联酋和美国设计生产出来的。为了确保其可靠性,这些建筑材料在中国和英国进行了一系列测试,并且,建筑所采用的弧度也是出于安全考虑,它保了大楼的稳定性。 /201606/448391Hua Luogeng(1910~1985) was a mathematician. Hua was born in a small business family.华罗庚(1910~1985),数学家,出生于小商人家庭。He had a capable middle school math teacher who recognized his potential early, and encouraged him to advanced texts.华罗庚的一个很有能力的中学数学老师很早就发现了他的潜力,鼓励他看高年级的课本。Hua was partially paral yzed in his late teenage, due to mistreatment in a prolonged illness during which he stayed in bed for half a year.华罗庚将近20岁时染上伤寒病,与死神搏斗半年,虽然活了下来,但却留下终身残疾--右腿瘸了。His first significant result regarded a paper written by Dr. Su Jiaju. Hua studied Abel#39;s original paper on the unsolvability of quintics and found a miscalculation in a 13*13 matrix in Su#39;s paper. Henceforth Hua published his refutal in an authoritative mathematics journal in China, which was discovered by some professors in Qinghua University, especially Dr. Xiong Qinglai.华罗庚写了一篇《苏家驹之代数的五次方程不成立的理由》,发表在上海《科学》杂志上,这篇文章被清华大学数学系主任熊庆来士发现。He was the founder and pioneer of many fields in mathematics research.华罗庚是中国数学多方面研究的创始人和开拓者。He wrote more than 200 pieces of thesis and monographs, many of which have become classic documents.发表研究论文200多篇,并有专著很多种,其中很多都已成为经典文献。Since his sudden death while giving a lecture in Japan, many mathematics secondary education programs have been named after him.自从华罗庚在日本做讲座时突然去世后,很多中等数学教育项目都以他的名字命名。In the early 1930#39;s, his book on Cumulative Prime Number Theory has been influential to many subsequent number theorists in China, including renowned Chen Jingrun who obtained the best result so far in the binary Goldbach conjecture.20世纪30年代早期,华罗庚的《堆垒素数论》影响了中国后来的很多数论家,包括目前在哥德巴赫猜想(1十2)的明中取得最好成绩的陈景润。 /201604/437572

This would be a good day to pursue some new interests. Perhaps you have recently discovered a book that opens up new areas of interest for you. If your sleep recently was punctuated by dreams, try to recall the general feeling you had and reflect on that for a while. You#39;ll probably realize it is only emotional residue from all the exhaustion of the past few weeks catching up with you.今天是培养新兴趣的好日子。近日,你也许发现了一本书,这本书打开了你感兴趣的新领域。如果近来你总是在睡梦中醒来,那就试着回忆总体的感觉,并思考一会儿。也许你会意识到这只不过是过去几周困扰你的疲惫感的情感余留。Your well being horoscope幸福运势Cool heads will be called for during the day, as tempers may flare over frustrations with ongoing problems. You may need to take a leading role in keeping everyone calm by facilitating clear and open communication. It will be very important to keep emotions in check or words will fly that people may regret. This is a passing situation and everyone should be on an even keel soon as long as issues get the proper airing they need.也许你会对不断出现的问题感到沮丧,因而爆发脾气,所以白天时你可能需要冷静。你可以主导人们通过清晰坦诚的对话使各自都冷静下来。控制住自己的情感十分重要,否则让人后悔的流言蜚语就会传出。这是一个会传染的情况,在问题得到合理解决之前,每个人都应该保持情绪的稳定。Your finance horoscope财务运势You might need to focus more on money matters. Sometimes it is easy for you to overspend. You tend to be generous with your cash, always treating others to dinner, gifts, or lunch. But right now you might need to watch your spending habits. You could find that you need to pay off a big bill. Or you might discover that you need to save more money each month.也许你需要对自己的资产更加关注。有时候,你很容易就会超。对待金钱,你往往十分大方,总是请别人吃晚饭、中饭,总是给别人送礼物。但现在,你需要留心自己的花钱习惯了。你可能会发现自己需要付一大笔帐。又或者你会发现自己每个月需要存更多钱。Your love horoscope爱情运势This could be a good day for playing games and for amusing yourself. You might buy a new game for your computer. Or you could borrow your kid#39;s game station and try out some of the games that they own! Or you might be drawn to athletic events. You might enjoy playing basketball with your kids or some friends. You#39;ll be y for some light-hearted entertainment and some relaxing times.今天是玩游戏、让自己开心的好日子。也许你会买一个新的电脑游戏。又或者你会跟你的孩子借游戏玩,试试他们玩的游戏!又或者你会被运动项目所吸引。你可能会喜欢与孩子们或一些朋友打篮球。现在的你十分适合玩一些轻松的项目,好好放松放松吧!Your career horoscope事业运势The financial picture continues to improve. At some point during the day, you might have the feeling that you#39;re not working hard enough to keep your current forward motion going, and you might panic. This might prove to be a good motivating factor, but you don#39;t need to push yourself much harder than you#39;re doing now. You#39;re on a roll, and it#39;s likely to continue. Keep moving, but pace yourself.你的财务状况得到了持续的改善。白天的有些时候,你也许会觉得自己工作不够努力,不足以使自己继续前进,因此你可能会感到恐慌。这也可能是一个好的动机,但你不需要迫使自己比现在更加努力。你现在一直在进步,并且还可能持续下去。继续向前,但也要稳打稳扎。译文属 /201608/461787

I have just baked gluten-free quinoa biscuits!我刚烤了不含谷蛋白的藜麦饼干!We#39;ve got a Tesla!我们有一个特斯拉!I love nazism!我爱纳粹!A WASP with a stroller can say anything and get away with it白人新教徒推着婴儿车可以说任何事情并能逃脱惩罚 /201608/462053

5.Aluminum Was More Valuable Than Gold5.铝比金子还珍贵Chemists knew that aluminum was around for about 40 years before they had the technology to isolate it. When they finally did so in 1825, it became insanely valuable. Originally, a Danish chemist developed the method for extracting only the tiniest bit, and it wasn#39;t until 1845 that the Germans figured out how to create enough of it that they could study even its most basic properties. In 1852, the average price of aluminum was around ,200 per kilogram. Today, that#39;s the equivalent of about ,650.化学家们在有能力分离铝约40年前就认识了铝元素。在1825年他们终于找到了分离铝的方法,随后铝就变得出奇的珍贵。最初,一位丹麦化学家研究出了一种方法来分离铝,但是只能分离极少的一点。随后在1845年德国人研究出了怎样分离出足够供给的份量,甚至他们可以研究铝的基本属性了。1852年铝的平均价格大约是每千克1200美元,就相当于今天的33650美元。It wasn#39;t until the 1880s that another process was developed that would allow for the more widesp use of aluminum, and until then, it remained incredibly valuable. The first president of the French Republic, Napoleon III, used aluminum dinner settings for only his most valued guests. The regular, run-of-the-mill guests were seated with gold or silver tableware. The King of Denmark wore an aluminum crown, and when it was chosen as the capstone of the Washington Monument, it was the equivalent of choosing pure silver today. Upscale Parisian ladies wore aluminum jewelry and used aluminum opera glasses to demonstrate just how wealthy they were. Aluminum also formed the backbone of visions for the future. It was the biggest attraction at the Parisian Exposition of 1878, and it became the material of choice for writers like Jules Verne when they were building their grand visions of the future. Aluminum was going to be used for everything from entire city structures to rocket ships. Of course, the value of aluminum took a steep dive when new ways were developed to create it, and it was suddenly everywhere.直到1880年,技术进步了,铝才被广泛的应用,不过那个时候铝还是贵得难以想象。法国共和国的第一任总统,拿破仑三世只有在宴请最重要的宾客的时候才会使用铝制餐具,一般的普通宾客就用金银餐具招待。丹麦的国王有一顶铝制的,并且在华盛顿纪念碑的顶点就是纯铝的,就像是我们今天选择纯银是一样的。巴黎上层的贵妇们佩戴着铝制珠宝,并用铝制的观剧望远镜来显示她们有多富裕。铝也构成了未来愿景的骨干。1878年,巴黎举办了一个大型的铝制品展会,一时之间铝成了如凡尔纳等作家在构建未来伟大梦境时的首选材料。那时打算把铝用在从城市建筑到火箭船舶所有可能用到的地方。当然了,当制造铝的新方法出现时,铝突然一下子变得随处可见,其价值也跟着急剧下降。4.Fluorine#39;s Deadly Challenge4.致命杀手--氟The first observations of fluorine came from the 1500s, with a German mineralogist who described it as a material that served to lower the melting point of ore. In 1670, a glassworker accidentally found that fluorspar and acids would react and used the reaction to etch glass. Isolating fluorine proved much more difficult—and deadly.16世纪一位德国矿物学家开始研究氟,并把它描述为一种能降低矿石熔点的物质。1670年,一个玻璃厂工人偶然发现氟石和酸性物质能够发生化学反应,并将这一发现用于蚀刻玻璃。分离氟也变得越加艰难--还可能致命。It was our old friend Carl Scheele who determined that it was something in the fluorspar that was causing the reaction, and in 1771, the hunt for fluorine began in earnest. Before it was finally isolated by Ferdinand Frederic Henri Moissan in 1886 (earning him a Nobel Prize), the process left quite a trail of illness and injury. Moissan himself was forced to stop his work four times as he suffered from, and slowly recovered from, fluorine poisoning. The damage done to his body was so great that it#39;s generally thought that his life would have been incredibly shortened by it had he not died of appendicitis only a few months after accepting the Nobel Prize. Humphry Davy#39;s attempts would leave him with permanent damage to his eyes and fingers. A pair of Irish chemists, Thomas and George Knox, also worked extensively on trying to isolate fluorine, with one dying and the other left bedridden for years. A Belgian chemist also died in his attempts, and a similar fate befell French chemist Jerome Nickels. In the 1860s, George Gore#39;s work resulted in a few explosions, and it was only when Moissan stumbled onto the idea of lowering the temperature of his sample to –23 degrees Celsius (–9 °F) and then trying to isolate the highly volatile liquid that fluorine was successfully documented for the first time.化学界的老朋友卡尔·史基认为这种化学反应是源于氟石里的某种物质。对于氟这一化学物质的寻找之旅也于1771 年正式启程。直到1886年,享利·莫瓦桑才成功将其分离出来,他也凭此荣获诺贝尔奖。然而发现之旅充满了无数的疾病和伤痛,莫瓦桑本人在中途因为氟中毒和缓慢的恢复情况也曾四次被迫停止研究。这一伤害对他的身体影响巨大,以至于人们认为即便亨利没有在得奖几个月后死于阑尾炎,他的寿命也会因此极大缩短。汉弗莱·戴维他的眼睛和手指因研究氟受到了永久性伤害。爱尔兰化学家托马斯和乔治·诺克斯也倾尽全力试图分离出氟,他们一个为此付出生命,一个多年卧床不起。一位比利时化学家也为此付出生命,相同的命运还发生在法国化学家杰罗姆·尼 克尔斯身上。19世纪60年代,乔治·戈尔的研究导致了几起爆炸,直到莫瓦桑误打误撞地想到将他的样本温度降低到-23摄氏度(9°F), 然后尝试着分离高度挥发的液体后,才首次成功获得氟。3.The Element Named For The Devil3.以魔鬼命名的元素Nickel is incredibly common today, used as an alloy and lending its name to a US coin (that#39;s really only about 25 percent actual nickel). The name is something of an oddity, though. While many elements are named for gods and goddesses, or their most desirable characteristic, nickel is named for the Devil.镍在现今已经十分普遍,它是美国硬币里的一种合金,正因如此,它也代指美国硬币(不过硬币中的镍含量只有百分之二十五)。不过镍这个名字也挺奇怪的。 其他的元素都是以诸神或他们的特点命名,而镍却是魔鬼的名字。The word ;nickel; is short for the German word kupfernickel. Its use dates back to an era when copper was incredibly useful, but nickel wasn#39;t the least bit desirable. Miners, always a superstitious lot, would often find ore veins that looked like copper but weren#39;t. The worthless ore veins came to be called kupfernickel, which translates to ;Old Nick#39;s copper.; Old Nick was a name for the Devil, and he was much more than that to the miners who were laboring deep underground. The belief was that Old Nick put the fake copper veins there on purpose, partially to make the miners waste their time and also to guide them in a direction that could be deadly. Every day was potentially deadly, after all, and miners have long believed in the presence of Earth spirits who can either help or kill the interlopers sent into their underground domain. Pure nickel was first isolated in 1751 by Swedish chemist and mineralogist Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, and the name that the miners had been calling the worthless ore for centuries stuck.;Nickel; 这一单词是德语尼格尔铜的简写。这一用法要追溯到那个铜十分普遍而镍一无是处的时代。那时的矿工们十分迷信,发现几处原以为是铜矿的矿脉,最终却大失所望,这些无用的矿脉就被命名为kupfernickel,翻译成英文就是;Old Nick#39;s copper;。Old Nick是魔鬼的名字。对于在地下深处劳作的矿工们来说Old Nick更为可怕。他们认为Old Nick 故意用假的铜矿来浪费矿工的时间并将他们引向死亡。毕竟,他们工作的每一天都埋伏着死亡的危机,矿工们深信着地灵的存在,坚信地灵可以决定是帮助还是杀死那些进 入其地下领域的入侵者。1751年,瑞典化学家兼矿物学家阿克塞尔·弗雷德里克·克龙斯泰特首次分离出了纯粹的镍。矿工们用了几个世纪的无用矿石这一名字也就此打住。2.The Bizarre Unveiling Of Palladium2.揭开钯的神秘面纱Palladium was documented by an incredibly under-studied genius named William Hyde Wollaston. Wollaston, who had a medical degree from Cambridge and only turned to chemistry after a long career as a doctor and inventor of optical instruments, isolated palladium and rhodium and created the first type of malleable platinum. His methods for revealing his finding of palladium to the world make for the best story, though.钯最先由一位叫做威廉·海德·沃拉斯顿的研究天才所记录的。沃拉斯顿拥有剑桥大学的医学学位,毕业后当了很长时间的医生和光学仪器研究者,之后才从事化学领域的研究,并且成功分离了钯和铑,创造了第一种可延展性铂。他向世人展示钯的方式堪称为化学史上的一朵奇葩。After establishing a partnership with the financially well-off Smithson Tennant, Wollaston got access to a material that needed to be smuggled into England through Jamaica from what#39;s now Colombia—platinum ore. In 1801, he set up a full laboratory in his back garden and got to work. His journals from 1802 talk about his new element, originally called ;ceresium,; renamed ;palladium; shortly afterward. Knowing that there were other researchers right behind him in their work, he had to go public with his findings. However, he wasn#39;t quite y to present it formally, so he took a handful of his new element to a store on London#39;s Gerrard Street in Soho. He then handed out a bunch of flyers advertising a wonderful new type of silver that was up for sale. Chemists went rather mad for the whole idea, with a number of them trying to replicate the material and failing to do so. With everyone denouncing the idea that it was anything but some kind of alloy, he anonymously offered a reward for anyone who could prove it. Of course, no one could. In the meantime, Wollaston kept working, found rhodium, and published a paper on it. That was in 1804; in 1805, he was y to come forward with palladium and wrote a paper on his earlier find. Appearing before the Royal Society of London, he gave a talk on the properties of this strange new material, before summing it up with an admission that he had found it earlier and needed time to explore all of its properties to his satisfaction before making it official.与经济大亨史密森·坦能建立合作关系后,沃拉斯顿获得了所有实验所需要的原材料。这种材料从现如今叫做哥伦比亚铂矿的地方开采取得,需要从牙买加走私才能进入英国。1801年,他在自己的后花园里建立了一个完整的实验室进行相关研究。沃拉斯顿早在1802年就在日记中提到了他所发现的新元素钯,最初命名为ceresium,不久后改名为palladium。得知还有其他的研究者也在进行相关的研究,他必须尽快公布他的发现。但是,他并不准备按照正常的流程公布,反而将一些新元素给了位于伦敦杰勒德街的一家商店。之后他发了些传单,宣传这是一种待售的新类型优质银。化学家们对这种行为表示气愤,很多人想要剽窃这种材料,无疑全部失败。同时有很多人谴责他,认为这种物质只是一类合金,于是他又匿名宣称任何可以明这一点的人都将获得丰厚的奖赏。毫无疑问,没人可以明。但是,沃拉斯顿并没有停止相关的研究工作,在此期间,他又发现了元素铑,并且为此发布了一篇论文。这一切全都发生在1804年。到了1805年,沃拉斯顿准备将钯公之于众,并为此写了一篇关于钯早期发现的文章。在伦敦皇家学会发现该元素之前,他对这种陌生的新材料的性质做了演讲,与向世人公布他早已发现了这种元素相比,成功研究了这种新元素的性质更令他兴奋。1.Chlorine And Phlogiston1.氯和燃素Belief in a substance called phlogiston set back the documentation of chlorine for decades.人们相信燃素的存在还要追溯要几十年前有关氯的记录。Introduced by Georg Ernst Stahl, the theory of phlogiston states that metals were made up of the core being of that metal, along with the substance phlogiston. Starting in the 18th century, chemists used it to explain why some metals change substance. When iron rusts, for example, it loses its iron-ness and only has its phlogiston left. The theory was an ever-evolving one, and by the 1760s, it was believed that the substance was ;inflammable air,; also known as hydrogen. Other elements were referred to in terms of the theory, too. Oxygen was dephlogisticated air, and nitrogen was phlogiston-saturated air. In 1774, Carl Scheele first produced chlorine using what we now call hydrochloric acid, and he described it in terms that we recognize pretty easily. It was acidic, suffocating, and ;most oppressive to the lungs.; He recorded its tendency to bleach things and the immediate death that it brought to insects. Rather that recognizing it as a completely new element, though, Scheele believed that he had found a dephlogisticated version of muriatic acid. A French chemist argued that it was actually an oxide of an unknown element, and that wasn#39;t the end of the arguing. Humphry Davy (whom we mentioned in his ill-fated quest for fluorine), thought it was an oxygen-free compound. This was in complete opposition to the rest of the scientific community, which was convinced that it was a compound involving oxygen. It was only in 1811, well after its first isolation and the debunking of the phlogiston theory, that Davy confirmed it was an element and named it after its color.乔治·厄恩斯特·斯塔尔介绍说:;燃素理论表明,金属以组成该金属的元素为核心,周围散布有大量的燃素。;18世纪初,化学家使用这种理论解释为什么金属燃烧后发生了实质上的改变。比如说:铁燃烧之后,失去了铁的性质,只留下燃素。该理论不断完善,到了18世纪60年代,人们相信这种物质是;易燃空气;,就是我们所熟知的氢。其他元素在该理论中也有提及,比如说氧是;缺乏燃素的空气;,而氮是;燃素饱和的空气;。1774年,卡尔·舍勒第一次使用盐酸制备氯气,他描述该物质很容易辨别,显酸性,会使人窒息,并且会对肺部会产生巨大压迫。他还记录了氯气拥有漂白物体的性质,此外,氯气会使昆虫迅速死亡。可惜直到这时舍勒还认为他发现的并不是新元素,而只是一种缺乏燃素的盐酸。一位法国的化学家认为这是一种未知元素的氧化物,但这并不是关于氯讨论的最终结果。汉弗莱·戴维(命途多舛的氟发现者)认为这是一种无氧化合物,这完全与其余科学家的观点相违背,因为大多数科学家确信这是一种含氧化合物。直到1811年,燃素说被推翻,戴维才确信这是一种新元素,并以其颜色命名为氯。审校:彼得潘 编辑:Carrie Xu 来源:前十网 /201607/452343

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